The history of independent India started when the country ended up being an independent country within the British Commonwealth on 15 August 1947. Direct management by the British, which started in 1858, impacted a political as well as financial marriage of the subcontinent. When British guideline came to an end in 1947, the subcontinent was partitioned along religious lines into 2 different countries-- India, with a majority of Hindus, as well as Pakistan, with a majority of Muslims. Simultaneously the Muslim-majority northwest as well as east of British India was divided into the Dominion of Pakistan, by the dividing of India. The dividing resulted in a populace transfer of more than 10 million individuals in between India and also Pakistan as well as the fatality of about one million people. Indian National Congress leader Jawaharlal Nehru came to be the very first Prime Minister of India, but the leader most connected with the independence battle, Mahatma Gandhi, accepted no office. The Constitution embraced in 1950 made India a democratic country, and also this freedom has been maintained ever since. India's continual autonomous flexibilities are unique amongst the globe's recently independent states.
The country has encountered spiritual violence, casteism, naxalism, terrorism as well as regional separationist insurgencies. India has unresolved territorial disagreements with China which in 1962 rose into the Sino-Indian War, and with Pakistan which caused battles in 1947, 1965, 1971 and 1999. India was neutral in the Cold War, and was a leader in the Non-Aligned Movement. Nonetheless, it made a loose alliance with the Soviet Union from 1971, when Pakistan was allied with the United States and also individuals's Republic of China.